turīya

(‘the fourth’)

Treatises on Advaita Vedānta take recourse to a method called ‘avasthātraya-viveka’ (‘analysis of the three states of consciousness’) to prove the existence of the ātman (the individual soul) as pure consciousness beyond the body-mind complex. Since it persists through all the three states of consciousness—jāgrat (waking state), svapna (dream state) and suṣupti (deep-sleep state)—it is called the ‘turīya’ or ‘the fourth’.

See also AVASTHĀTRAYA.