It is common for a person in distress to pledge his property—whether movable or immovable—with someone and borrow money. The dharmaśāstras or law-books of Hinduism call this as ‘ādhi.’
An object pledged thus is called ‘gopya’ if it is just to be kept in safe custody till the pledge is redeemed; or as ‘bhogya’ if it is permitted to be used or enjoyed.
The pledger loses his ownership over the object if he does not repay the debt within the stipulated time. If there is no time limit, the ownership is retained until the debt is repaid.