bhāva

(‘emotion’)

The words ‘bhāva’ and ‘rasa’ are often used in works dealing with dramatics and poetics. A bhāva is defined as a permanent or lasting emotion lying deep in the subconscious strata of our minds. When it is aesthetically excited, it produces, in a sympathetic heart, the corresponding sentiment called ‘rasa.’ Bhāvas have been listed as nine with the corresponding rasas, also nine, known as ‘navarasas’. They are:

BHĀVA RASA
1. rati (lust) śṛṅgāra (erotic)
2. hāsa (mirth) hāsya (comic)
3. śoka (sorrow) karuṇā (pathetic)
4. krodha (anger) raudra (furious)
5. utsāha (courage) vīra (heroic)
6. bhaya (fear) bhayānaka (terrible)
7. jugupsā (aversion) bībhatsa(disgusting)
8. vismaya (wonder) adbhuta(marvellous)
9. nirveda or śama (detachment, repose) śānta (peaceful)

These bhāvas considered as permanent, are sometimes called ‘sthāyī-bhāvas’ as against the transitory ones, called ‘sañcārī or vyabhicārī bhāvas.’ The latter may be as many as 33 or 34.

Eight more bhāvas or states, involuntary evidences of internal feelings like trembling, shedding tears and so on, are also mentioned sometimes, taking the total number to 50 or 51. (See also ALAṄKĀRA-ŚĀSTRA and RASAS.)

The word ‘bhāva’ in Hindu astrology indicates the significance of a house in a horoscope. For instance, the ‘bhāva’ of the second house is dhana or wealth, and of the fifth house it is putra or son. So, if the planets are propitiously situated with reference to the second or the fifth house, he would be wealthy or have sons.