These words which mean ‘bondage,’ have been used in the Indian philosophical literature in a more technical sense, that of the bondage of the ātman (or soul) due to various factors. Generally, all the six well-known schools of philosophy accept that bandha or bondage has been caused by avidyā, ajñāna or mithyājñāna (ignorance or false knowledge of the Reality) and mokṣa or liberation comes through jñāna or right knowledge and experience of the Reality.

For details see under each of the six systems of Indian philosophy.

In Haṭhayoga, the word bandha or mudrā is used to indicate the various methods prescribed for controlling the prāṇa or the vital airs and arousing the kuṇḍalinīśakti, the basic psycho-spiritual energy situated at the root of the spinal column.

For details see MUDRĀS.