The sages of India were good psycho-logists. With a keen and incisive intellect, they discovered the basic urge of all human beings to get pleasure and happiness in life. They were also wise enough to perceive that this urge had to be contained by a higher motivating power, so that the greatest good of the greatest number could be achieved. This, they called ‘dharma’ (righteousness) while naming the other as ‘artha and kāma.’ Kāma is desire in general and artha is the means of satisfying it. The three together have been classified as ‘trivarga,’ whereas mokṣa (liberation from transmigration, beatitude) which is beyond the pale of this, gets the appellation ‘apavarga’ (varga = class, apa = beyond).
Mokṣa, mukti, kaivalya and nirvāṇa are its synonyms.
See MOKṢA for details.