(‘that which is pointed out’)

In the Nyāya and Vaiśeṣika darśanas, the systems of Indian logic, a five-membered syllogism is often resorted to, to prove a point. They are:

  • pratijñā (statement of assertion);
  • hetu (reason for the assertion);
  • udāharaṇa (example containing a universal proposition);
  • upanaya (application to the case on hand); and
  • nigamana (conclusion).

Out of these, hetu, the second member, is sometimes designated as ‘apadeśa.’

The syllogism can be illustrated in that order as follows:

  • Rāma is mortal;
  • because he is a man;
  • All men are mortal;
  • Rāma is also a man;
  • Therefore he is mortal.

See also HETU.