Hinduism believes in the theory of karma (actions) and punarjanma (reincarnation). As a result of puṇya (meritorious deeds), the jīva (the individual) is said to go to svargaloka (heaven) or candraloka (the lunar world) and return to the earth after the merit is used up. Even after this puṇya is exhausted, there are other karmas still left over, which will fructify and give the jīva further births and experiences. Such residual karma is called anuśaya.
The word is sometimes used in the sense of paścāt-tāpa or repentance.
See also PRĀRABDHA-KARMA.