Brahmādvaita-vāda

(‘the school [that teaches] Brahman, the one without a second’)

All the schools of Vedānta posit Brahman, the Absolute, as the primary reality. However, it is the Advaita Vedānta school of Śaṅkara (A. D. 788-820) that considers Brahman, not just the primary reality, but as the only reality and that it is ‘advaita,’ ‘the one without a second’. This proposition seems to have been put forward not only as the most essential teaching of the Upaniṣads, but also to counter the Śabdādvaita-vāda of the grammar schools which propounded that ‘Śabda’ or the ‘Word’ was the sole origin of the universe.

See also ADVAITA-VEDĀNTA-DARŚANA and SPHOṬAVĀDA.