It is but natural for every human being to desire for wealth and well-being in this world. When he finds that he cannot get what he wants by his limited efforts alone, he may be tempted to try unethical means. Intuiting such a possibility, our ṛṣis have provided the aspirants with appropriate prayers to God to get what they want. The Bhāgyasūkta may be classed among such prayers.
It occurs in two places: The Ṛgveda (7.3.41) and the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa (2.8.9).
According to the Ṛgvedic version, Vasiṣṭha is the ṛṣi (the sage to whom it was revealed) and Bhaga is the chief devatā or deity. The chandas or metre is jagatī and triṣṭubh.
A brief summary of its contents may now be attempted here:
We invoke the various Vedic gods like Agni, Indra, Bhaga, Mitra, Varuṇa, Rudra and others at this hour of dawn.
(Bhaga is the chief deity of this sūkta. He is the giver or distributor of all the good things of life.)
One who wants wealth—whether he is poor or even a king—can pray for it from Bhaga, the powerful sustainer of this world.
O Bhaga! You, the possessor of true wealth, listen to our prayer and grant us boons in the form of cattle, horses, children and relatives.
May we have Bhaga for our lord, at all times of day.
O gods! May Bhaga only be the possessor of opulence. O Bhaga, who is invoked by all, you be our guide.
May the gods Uṣas (deities of dawn), bring Bhaga, the giver of wealth, to us for our sacrifice.
May the auspicious gods of dawn who give rains, bless us with horses, cows, and heroic sons.
The Ṛgvidhāna (2.25) of Śaunaka (circa 500 B. C.) declares that those who are suffering from diseases as also those who want to enter a new house, should repeat this sūkta as a prayer.
Some texts have an extra verse at the end. Its meaning is—‘O Agni! One who wants me to be deprived of wealth, you please deprive him of his wealth!’
See also BHAGA.