Bahvṛcopaniṣad

This is one of the minor Upaniṣads of recent origin (c. 13th cent. A. D.) and sectarian in character. It belongs to the Ṛgvedic tradition (See BAHVṚCA.) and deals with the Goddess or Śakti. The entire Upaniṣad, which is a short one, is in prose except for quotations.

In the beginning, the Devī or the Goddess alone existed. She created the Cosmic Egg. Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Rudra were born out of her; so also various other beings like the maruts (wind-gods), gandharvas (celestial minstrels), apsaras (nymphs) and beings of this earth.

She is the Power Supreme. She is the various arts and sciences like the Śāmbhavī-vidyā (the science of Śambhu or God), the Kādi-vidyā, the Hādi-vidyā and the Sādi-vidyā (sciences related to the Divine Mother). She is Om and abides in the realm of words as their import. She is Mahātripurasundarī, pervading the three bodies—the gross, the subtle and the causal—as pure consciousness. She alone is the Ātman. Nothing exists apart from her. What is contemplated upon by the mahāvākyas (See MAHĀVĀKYAS.) is she herself. It is she that is called by various names such as: Bālā, Ambikā, Bagalā, Mātaṅgī, Bhuvaneśvarī, Cāmuṇḍā, Vārāhī, Aśvārūḍhā, Pratyaṅgirā, Dhūmāvatī, Sāvitrī, Sarasvatī and so on. (See under each name for details.)