ānvīkṣikī

(‘science of reflecting after’)

Ancient works on polity often mention ānvīkṣikī as one of the four sciences to be taught compulsorily to the princes, especi-ally the one who will become the next king. Literally the word means something to be reflected upon (īkṣ = to reflect) after (anu = after) hearing about the same from the preceptor. Hence, the earliest connotation seems to be ‘philo-sophy,’ the same as was later on known as ‘darśana.’

However, the word has been used in later literature more exclusively to denote the logical sciences, tarkaśāstra or Nyāya.